What is Depression, Its Symptoms, Its Causes, and Its Treatment?

Depression is a common and serious medical illness that affects your thinking and feeling how you feel, think, and act. It interferes with daily life. Many people have occasional mood changes or feel sad or anxious for short periods.

Emotional fluctuations are very common, but if they remain for a long time, they create problems.

When these feelings don’t go away, when they are strong enough to interfere with your ability to work, study, eat or enjoy once-pleasurable activities, it means that you may be suffering from depression.

These symptoms disrupt everyday life for weeks, months, or longer. In severe cases, it leads to thoughts of self-harm and suicide.

Symptoms of Depression:

Depression is a common mental illness that affects millions of people each year. Symptoms may vary from person to person. The physical, behavioral, emotional symptoms are the following:

Physical Symptoms:

The physical symptoms are the following:

Persistent Fatigue or Lethargy:

Due to depression, you can feel low and low energy levels. 

Muscle Aches and Headaches:

You can feel muscle and joint pain. Chronic headaches, migraines, and joint cramps are common.

Sleep Problems:

Poor sleep, poor sleep quality, and insomnia is a common symptom.

Changes in Weight and Appetite:

Fluctuations in appetite and weight are common. Some people eat more and gain more weight, and some people don’t eat food, and as a result, they lose weight.

Digestive Problems:

Many digestive problems like stomach cramps, nausea, and bloat occur during this condition. 

Behavioural & Mental Signs of Depression:

The behavioral symptoms are the following:

Feelings of Hopelessness:

Feeling hopeless is common. You have a hopeless towards your life.

Loss of Interest:

Loss of interest in your daily activities like sports, hobbies, and your daily activities that you loved once.


You have difficulty concentrating on your work and activities.


Men have symptoms of irritability when they are depressed.

Suicidal Tendency:

Suicidal tendency increased due to depression

Common Symptoms of Depression:

The common symptoms are the following:

  • Pessimism
  • Daily feelings of sadness, loss, emptiness
  • crying a lot
  • Loss of interest in daily activities you used to enjoy
  • Feelings of guilt or worthlessness
  • A sense of hopelessness about the future
  • Insomnia or excessive sleeping
  • difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
  • moving or talking more slowly
  • chronic physical pain (headaches, aches or pains, digestive problems, cramps) with no apparent cause that treatment does not improve.
  • Restlessness or slowed behavior
    Fatigue and lack of energy
  • Feeling so restless it interferes with daily life (psychomotor retardation)
  • Thoughts of death or suicide.

Causes of Depression:

There are many causes of depression. Some people have a genetic disposition to it, while others experience traumatic situations in their lives that lead to depression. 

Most people who suffer from depression have experienced at least one traumatic event in their life, such as a divorce or the loss of a loved one.

The causes for each individual can vary. However, once you understand what causes your specific symptoms, you can begin to take steps towards recovery and start living a healthy and fulfilling life. 

Some common causes are the following:

  • Brain chemistry
  • Hormone level
  • Family history
  • Early childhood trauma
  • Medical conditions
  • Use of Harmful Substances
  • Pain

Brain Chemistry:

Brain chemistry and chemical changes in some parts of the brain that manage your feelings may cause depression.

Mood swings, loss of appetite, sleep, thoughts, and changes in behavior may cause due to chemical changes in the brain.

Hormone Levels:

Changes in hormonal levels in the body also cause depression. Changes in female hormones estrogen and progesterone during different periods like the menstrual cycle, postpartum period, perimenopause, or menopause may increase the risk of depression.

Family History:

Family history is also a common cause. You are at a high risk of depression if you have a family history of depression or another mood disorder.

Early Childhood Trauma: 

Some events painful events of childhood affect the way your body reacts to fear and stressful situations.

Medical Conditions:

Certain medical conditions and medication for specific diseases increase the risk of depression.

Medical conditions like chronic pain, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, heart attack, cancer, insomnia causes depression.

Use of Harmful Substances. 

The use of harmful substances like alcohol, drugs, and other toxic chemicals increases the risk of depression.


People who feel emotional or chronic physical pain for long periods are significantly at a high risk of developing depression.

Treatment of Depression:

This treatment is very important for people that suffer from depression. It is treated and managed with medication and psychotherapy. This treatment improves the quality of your daily life.

The treatment options are the following:

  • Medication
  • Psychotherapy


Antidepressants and anti-anxiety medicines are used for the treatment. These medicines help to improve the quality of your life.


Psychotherapy is also the best option for the treatment. Consult a psychiatrist that helps you to deal with negative thoughts.

CBT is the best part of the therapy. This therapy helps to change the thought pattern of the patients.

Other treatment options are a healthy lifestyle, eating healthy foods, meditation, exercising, and healthy activities.

All these activities help reduce stress and anxiety, improve your mood, and make you feel happy.

Final Words:

Depression can be a confusing and frustrating illness, but there are effective treatments available.

If you think you could be suffering from depression, you should speak to your doctor as soon as possible.

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