Q.1 (A) Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.
1. Declaration of Independence’ was drafted by……..
(a) George Washington
(b) Thomas Jefferson
(c) Lord Amherst
(d) Lord Cornwallis
Ans: (b) Thomas Jefferson
2. The Second Anglo-Burmese War fought during the times of…….
(a) Lord Amherst
(b) Lord Dufferin
(C) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Ashley Eden
Ans: (C) Lord Dalhousie
(B) Find the incorrect pair: from group ‘B’, and write the corrected one.
Ans. Ivory Coast – French colony
Q.2 (A) Write the names of historical places/
1. The region from Florida to California on the southern coast of America was under the control of
2. The sea voyages for exploration were encouraged in the reign of Queen.
Ans. Queen Elizabeth I
(B) Choose a correct reason and complete the sentence.
1. The British wanted to gain control over Myanmar, because.
(a) they wanted to expand their empire
(b) it was very important to control the natural resources and the market in Myanmar
(c) they wanted to be on the forefront in the colonial competition amongst the European
(d) they wanted to teach a lesson to King Thibaw of Myanmar
Ans: (b) it was very important to control the natural resources and the market in Myanmar
Q.3 Complete the concept map.
2)Requirements of raw materials
3)Investing surplus capital
4)Availability of labour etc.
Q.4 Write short Notes.
1. Nature of Colonialism
i. Colonialism is the act of a developed nation occupying the land of a less developed, distant nation and establishing their rule on the occupied country. Europeans travelled all over the world with various intentions such as the urge for adventures, to earn name, to discover unknown lands, to search for gold mines etc.
ii. The Europeans established colonies wherever they went and in doing so there was a competition to gain economic, social and political supremacy among the nations. Extreme nationalism, feeling of racial superiority, industrialisation, aggressive approach etc., are the factors that led to the growth of colonialism.
iii. Thus, Europeans went to America, Australia and New Zealand. The Europeans also colonised Asia. However, the climate of Asia did not favour them.Favourable or unfavourable, Europeans disposed the indigenous people in their own lands.
iv. The Europeans saw these colonies as potential marketplaces to sell their surplus goods which were accumulated as a result of mass production. The Europeans also needed additional sources that would provide ample raw material.
v. In the latter half of the 19th century, England built a flourishing trade as a result of industrial revolution.
2. American War of Independence.
Ans. The colonies got into several battles with the British army even after gaining independence. The colonies finally at Saratoga got a decisive victory over the British army. This victory proved to be a turning point for the colonies as the French agreed to support them in their conflict against the British. Eventually Spain also joined the conflicts in their struggle for independence.On 7th October, 1780 George Washington defeated the British army. On 19th October, The British General Lord Cornwallis surrendered and America became independent. The American revolt for independence is also known as the ‘American Revolution’. America proved to the world that the subjects have a right to fight their rulers who deny them their natural rights.
Q.5 Explain the following statements with reason.
1. The Industrial revolution gave a momentum to colonialism.
Ans. Colonialism was a result of industrial revolution. Production increased enormously because of the new machines. However, the rate of local consumption was much less compared to the surplus rate of production. Hence, the immediate need of the Europeans was to find new markets for selling their products. It was also necessary that these markets be dependable and easy to dominate.
(2) European nations established colonies in America.
Ans. The stronger European nations dominated the weaker countries by establishing colonies there and pushed them to subjection. The lands of the original inhabitants in America were seized by the Europeans and were also massacred. The original inhabitants were forced into slavery, The Europeans discovered gold mines and the Spanish colonists brought African slaves to work in sugarcane and tobacco fields. Farming and mining earned them enormous wealth. Essential raw materials were exported to Spain and the finished goods used to be imported for sale in the local markets for the colonies. The de of gold and silver also earned huge profits for the king. Witnessing Spain’s prosperity England, Holland and France also began to establish colonies in America.